Open Access Short Research Article

Feeding and Breeding Management Practices of Dairy Cattle in Surajpur District of Chhattisgarh

Vandana Bhagat, D. Bhonsle, Shraddha Nety, Paroshree Dinkar, Sourabh Yogi, Arvind K. Nandanwar, Anupam Soni

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 161-167
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230815

Nutritional requirement is exceptionally important and breeding practice is decisive factor for improvement of farm animals. The present field survey was conducted in district Surajpur of Chhattisgarh state to find out feeding and breeding management practice carried out by farmers. A predesigned questionnaire schedule formulated and data were collected from randomly selected 200 household of 10 village of district Surajpur. Heat detection on the basis of symptoms and artificial insemination as method of breeding was adopted by majority of farmers. Data regarding feeding practices reveal that 1/3rd farmers followed stall feeding and 2/3rd were using stall feeding along with grazing. Concentrate feeding practiced by 2/3rd respondents. Paddy and wheat straw was the main source of dry fodder in studied area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Feasibility of Dairy Enterprise under Women SHG in Marathwada Region of Maharashtra

S. G. Ingle, T. G. Satpute, G. D. Rede

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230795

In India, dairy farming is traditionally practiced enterprise as a supplementary income source with the crop production. The present study was undertaken to analyze the Economic feasibility of Self-Help Groups (SHGs) microfinance for dairy enterprise run by women particularly from buffalos in Marathwada region of Maharashtra state. Whole study was based on the primary data set which was collected from the Parbhani district for year 2015-16. Multistage sampling design was used in selection of district, tehsils, villages and SHG groups. The cross sectional data was randomly collected from the 70 members of buffalo rearing selected SHGs. So the required data was collected by personal interview method using pre tested schedules. The data collected was subjected to tabular and economic feasibility analysis i.e., Net Present Value (NPV), Benefit-Cost Ratio (B/C ratio), Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Net benefit – investment ratio (N/K ratio). The study revealed that the net present value was found positive and benefit cost ratio more than unity. The internal rate of return was higher than bank rate. So in the study area dairy is feasible enterprise and very much suitable for rural women to practice and empower them economically and socially. This feasibility analysis showed that dairy enterprise through microfinance gives more returns to women entrepreneurs. So, the financial institutions and NGOs should come forward to extent economic support and guidance to rural women through SHGs to take up these enterprises as an income generating activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Mental Health Status of the Teaching Community of RPCAU, Pusa

Dipankar Saikia, Ashok K. Singh, Nirala Kumar, Bidyut P. Gogoi, Avinash Kumar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 8-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230796

Aims: The study examined mental health status of teachers working at RPCAU, Pusa.

Study Design: A Descriptive design was implemented.

Place and Duration of the Study: Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa, Bihar in the year 2021.

Methodology: One hundred and sixty teachers from all the colleges of RPCAU were selected, by using multistage purposive sampling technique and administered with a mental health inventory (MHI) developed by Jagdish and Srivastav (1988). The statistical techniques employed were frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation (SD) and the obtained results were analyzed accordingly.

Results: The findings suggested that majority of teaching community of RPCAU, Pusa were mainly having good mental health. With respect to different dimensions of mental health, it is evident that majority of teaching community of RPCAU, Pusa were having better mental health across their integration of personality (45.62%), and group-oriented attitude (43.75%), while positive self-evaluation (38.12%), perception of reality (41.87%), autonomy (55.00%) and environmental competence (38.12%) were the other dimensions in which majority of teaching community was found to possess average mental health.

Conclusion: It can be concluded from the findings that teaching community of RPCAU, Pusa were primarily having good mental health. Since the teaching faculty of the University were having highest degree in their possession and being the faculty in Central University, their wages and perks being paid regularly in order to meet their relevant needs hence, better mental health are the ingredient under which they are working.

Open Access Original Research Article

Decision Making Pattern of Farm Women in Different Farm and Non-farm Activities

P. Saikia

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 13-18
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230797

The present study was undertaken to study the decision making pattern of  farm Women in different farm and non-farm activities with following objectives i) to study the selected personal and socio personal and socio-economic characteristic of rural women and ii) to analyze the decision making pattern of rural women in different farm and non farm activities The study was conducted in Six Districts of Assam. A purposive cum simple random sampling technique was adopted for selecting the respective samples for the study. Altogether 1200 farm women were selected for the present study. Data was collected personally by interview method. The findings reveals  that farm women belonged to low socio-economic status, less than fifty per cent of farm women took independent decision in maintenance of house (35.25%), followed by buying food items for family consumption (34.17%) and  crop harvesting and transporting (33.75%). majority (78.75%) of farm women took joint decision in purchase of household items, purchase of implements (73.66%) followed by selling of  crops and where to sell (72.42%), buying of clothes for family members (67.25%).

Open Access Original Research Article

Use of Social Media by Farmers of Uttarakhand

Sandeep Kaur, Neha Sharma, Gayatri Pipaliya, V. L. V. Kameswari

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 19-25
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230798

Agriculture is one of the most important sectors of the Indian economy and can benefit tremendously from the application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). ICTs can be especially important in bringing changes to socio-economic conditions of small and marginal farmers. A study was conducted in using Accidental sampling method with a sample size of 99 in Udham Singh Nagar District of Uttarakhand to find the characteristics of the farmers and to assess the use of ICTs by the farmers. The finding of the study revealed that majority of the  farmers belonged to middle age group, practiced farming as their main occupation and maximum number of farmers were educated upto graduation level. Majority of them owned smart phones and had internet connectivity on their mobile phone. Samsung mobile phones were used by maximum number of the farmers. It was also found that majority of the farmers used WhatsApp, Facebook, YouTube frequently and mainly for entertainment purpose. However, majority of them were not using email, agricultural websites/ portals, agricultural apps and  Twitter.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints and Suggestions Encountered by the Beneficiaries under Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana in Tumkur District of Karnataka

Y. Darshan, K. Ramakrishnan, J. Pushpa, K. Prabakaran

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 33-37
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230800

The Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojna (PMFBY) is a crop-based insurance policy designed to help farmers who have suffered crop loss or damage and stabilizes farm income. In the year 2020-21, a study was conducted in the Tumkur district of Karnataka as district had highest number of insurance units (895) as compared to other districts of the Karnataka state. The findings of the study revealed that delay in getting the claim was the prime constraint faced by the beneficiaries with a highest percentage of 81.67 per cent and as ranked first followed by less compensation offered (80.00 per cent) and getting claims is a complicated procedure (76.67 per cent). With respect to suggestions given by the beneficiaries were before the start of the next season, the claim should be distributed with a percentage of 87.50 and ranked first, followed by organizing awareness programs for farmers regarding PMFBY (78.33 per cent) and representatives from financial institutions and policy makers should monitor and supervise the assessment (72.50 per cent). The study bought out a number of various constraints faced by the farmers related to Crop Insurance Schemes. As a result, concerned officers should approach the State Government and request that they make earnest efforts to pay the claim before the start of the following season as well as conduct more training and awareness programs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Staple Food Production in Ensuring Food Security in Nigeria

A. T. Harry, E. S. Urang, N. M. Olise

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 38-44
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230801

The study investigated the role of staple food production in ensuring food security. The study investigated role of staple food production in ensuring food security in Nigeria. The objectives of this study are to: determine the impact of staple food production on gross domestic product of crops in Nigeria, investigate the value of government guaranteed agricultural loan to farmers on agricultural production in Nigeria, and examine the value of food import bill on total value of import of Nigeria. The study employed time series data. Data is generated from the Central Bank of Nigeria and the National Bureau of statistics bulletin. The study employed the ordinary least square (OLS) of simple regression. The study conducted both econometric and statistical tests. The empirical results showed R2 value of 0.24,053 and 0.22 for models 1-3 respectively. The three models are rightly signed. The coefficient (β) of 0.1631 (model 1) showed that 100% increase in staple food production would lead to a 16.31% increase in gross domestic production of crops (GDPC). Since the computed t-value of 3.102765 falls outside the critical region of  0.0042, we reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternate hypothesis at 5% level of significance. The model 3 test showed that the total import bill (TIMB) was significantly sensitive to variation in the food import bill (β=30.7422). The result confirms that 30.7% of the variation in total import bill was accounted for by the food import bill. Based on the results, the study recommended that emphasis should be placed on one hand and ensuring food security (self-sufficiency) in general.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perception of Farmers towards Climate Change in Southern Parts of Tamil Nadu: A Critical Analysis

Sivaraj Paramasivam, G. Vivekanathapatmanaban

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 45-53
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230802

The goal of this research was to look into farmers' perceptions of climate change in agriculture. An ex post facto research design was used in the study. The research was carried out in wetland, dryland, and garden land farming systems in the Tamil Nadu districts of Madurai and Sivagangai. A total of 120 farmers representing three farming systems were chosen and surveyed for the study using a proportionate random sample procedure. Personal interviews with respondents were conducted using a well-structured and pre-tested interview schedule. Descriptive statistical tools were used to analyze the data. According to the findings, more than half of the respondents in the wetland (65.00%), dryland (50.00%), and garden land (55.00%) were perceived climate change in agriculture at a medium level. The majority of the garden land respondents (72.50%) had perceived the increased pest and disease incidence due to climate change than the respondents of wetland (52.50%) and drylands (30.00%). More than three-fifths of the respondents in the study area had perceived the income from agriculture was adversely affected (69.17%) due to climate change followed by the change in crop yield (64.17%) and cost of cultivation was increased (61.67%) due to the climate change. As a result, any intervention that supports the use of climate change adaptation measures may take into account location-specific factors that influence farmers' perceptions of climate change and adaptive responses to it.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Recent Rice Price Dynamics in Bangladesh: Causes and Policy Options

Mohammad Chhiddikur Rahman, Md. Abdur Rouf Sarkar, Md. Abdus Salam, Jahangir Alam, Md. Mosharraf Uddin Molla, Md. Saidur Rahman, Syful Islam, Mohammad Reza Ahmed Khan, Md. Mahbubur Rahman

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 54-69
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230803

Rice availability and affordability are the key determinants of food security in Bangladesh. Therefore, it becomes the most important crop for the social and political economy of the country. Although a tremendous technological advancement contributed to the increasing trend of rice production, its affordability threatened due to the increasing price at the consumers’ level. The recent natural calamities and COVID-19 have worsened the food security status across the world. This research has estimated the demand and supply of rice in the pandemic era and figured out the drivers of recent price hike both in the producers’ and consumers’ levels using empirical and cognitive approaches. Based on the findings, some actionable policy options have been suggested to address the price level of rice in Bangladesh towards sustaining food security.

Open Access Original Research Article

Livestock Holding and Time Spent by Farm Women in Dairying Activities in Andhra Pradesh

N. Leela Krishna, A. Anitha, S. Jagadeeswara Rao, M. Muralidhar

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 70-76
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230804

A study was conducted to investigate the involvement of women in dairying activities in Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh. The study involved a total of 225 respondents covering 75 villages. The result revealed that small farm women possessed significantly (P≤0.05) more graded Murrah buffaloes (3.68±0.28), whereas women under medium farm category possessed significantly (P≤0.05) more number of local cows (0.28±0.07), Murrah buffaloes (0.45±0.21) as well as more (P≤0.01) buffalo heifers (1.22±0.14). The milk production (litres per day) (13.25±0.80), consumption (1.48±0.06) and milk consumption by women (0.16±0.07) was observed to be high in medium women dairy farmers in the study area. Milk sale per day was observed to be significantly (P≤0.05) high in small farmers (14.20±1.90). Small farm women (587.00±81.70) obtained more income (rupees/day) through dairying followed by medium (516.34±54.35) and landless (385.66±32.39) farm women. It was observed that women are spending more time on dairy activities in the study area compared to men. The time spent was more on feeding activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Decomposition Analysis of Poverty among Rural Farming Household in Oyo State, Nigeria

Adeleye Ifeoluwa A., Obabire Ibikunle E., Fasuan Yetunde O., Babadiji Abike O.

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 77-85
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230805

The incidence of poverty in Nigeria is worrisome, and it has constituted a national menace. The occurrence of poverty incidence had been found to be more pronounced among Rural farming households in the country. However, paucity of data exists in terms of decomposition of household poverty into relevant subgroups using their socio-economic characteristics. Therefore, this paper assessed the decomposition analysis of poverty among rural farming Households in Oyo State, Nigeria using the data collected through a well-structured interview schedule from 170 respondents who were selected through a multi-stage sampling procedure. Data collected were described using frequency counts and percentage while poverty Indices was analyzed using Foster-Greer Thorbecke model and Decomposition analysis. The findings revealed that higher proportion (73.5%) of the respondents were above 40 years, 65.3% were male, 78.2% were married and 27.6% had secondary education, while 62.4% had household size of between 5 and 9 persons. Majority (79.4%) had farm size of more than 1.5 hectares and 62.9% had no access to remittance. Poverty incidence (P0) was 40.59%, Poverty depth/gap (P1) was 16.11% and Poverty severity (P2) was 0.09%, among the respondents using income-poverty line measure. Decomposition analysis showed that Poverty was high among households that were headed by male, young with low literacy level, and large household size. The severity of poverty was higher among households headed by labour of other farms. Effective poverty reduction strategies should therefore focus on education, livelihood diversification and control of household size.

Open Access Original Research Article

Growth, Instability and Decomposition Analysis of Nutri Cereals in Tamil Nadu

T. Nivetha, K. Uma

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 86-90
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230806

Aim: The study was undertaken to know the growth rate, instability, and contribution of area and yield on the production of Nutri cereals.

Place and Duration: The study was based on the secondary data for the period of 20 years (2001- 2020) for Tamil Nadu. Data has been collected from Agricultural statistics at a glance (2020), Season and Crop report (2020).

Methodology: The growth rate of Nutri cereals can be estimated through compound annual growth rate, instability is measured using Coppock’s instability index and contribution of area and yield on production is studied using decomposition analysis.

Results: Results revealed that Nutri cereals growth rate is found to be negative in first decade and positive in second decade Production of Nutri cereals in both the decades found positive in decline trend. The trend of productivity seems positive for both the decades at declining rate. Instability index is higher in terms of production than area and productivity. Area effect was most responsible for the production of Nutri cereals than yield and interaction effect.

Conclusion: The area effect is more responsible for production of Nutri cereals. Area effect on production of Nutri cereals is high, hence government should intervene in this regard to improve the area of Nutri cereals cultivation.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Tool to Measure Entrepreneurial Skill among Agripreneurs

S. Elakkiya, M. Asokhan

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 91-97
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230807

Entrepreneurship skills are an individual’s ability to make business in a profitable way. The study focused on to develop a tool to measure the entrepreneurial skill among the agripreneurs by reviewing of literature. Item selection and scoring procedure had been included in this study. Based on the reliability and validity testing, this study finalized the instruments to yielding seven indicators, namely, marketing dimension, psychological magnitude, managerial skill, behavioural skill, technical skill, communication competency, cognitive skill. It is recommended that future researchers apply and thereby extend the developed measure by cross-examining the instruments presented in this study across different entrepreneurs study. The results obtained will be helpful in planning and implementing the capacity development programmes. Among seven indictors and the respective sub indicators, the indicators and sub indicators having above 0.75 relative weightage score had taken for final index. The study found that marketing skill (0.88), psychological magnitude (0.89), behavioural skill (0.79), technical skill (0.83), communication competency (0.93) and cognitive skill (0.89) were the major skill of the agri entrepreneurs, should possess to run their business effectively and efficiently.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Floriculture Entrepreneurial Challenges in Odisha, India

Debabrata Swain, Mukesh Kumar Maurya

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 98-102
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230808

Floriculture is the practice of cultivating and planting flowers for commercial purposes. Odisha is a state with a lot of flower production and commercial possibilities. The government has also created some policies for Floriculture under the Department of Horticulture, taking into account the demand and scope of flowers in the state. Floriculture provides a wealth of opportunities for the state's residents, not only in terms of farming, but also in terms of employment. Rose, marigold, jasmine, lotus, and champa are some of the flowers that have had a high demand over the years and are currently intended for export. The state's agro-climatic conditions are ideal for flower planting, and the number of flower plantations is increasing day by day to meet domestic demand as well as the demands of the state's enterprises. Now, floriculture is solely for commercial purposes, with small and medium-sized businesses relying on it.

Open Access Original Research Article

Social Impact of Primary Agricultural Co-operative Societies (PACS) in Nadia District of West Bengal

Pijush Kanti Ghosh, Jayanta Dutta, Arabinda Mitra

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 103-117
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230809

Aims: The researcher has endeavored to analyze impacts of PACS in-terms of selected social parameters using perception of the sample respondents. The study is significant to evaluate the perception of members PACS.

Place and Duration of Study: The researchers have employed 290 members in 29 PACS out of the 365 operating PACS found in the Nadia district of West Bengal. Primary data for the study have been collected during 2017-2019.

Methodology: The researchers have employed a multi-stage random sampling technique for selecting 290 members in 29 PACS in the Nadia district of West Bengal. The Likert-scale used with 5 points in the questionnaire in which, the respondents were required to grade the scale of their satisfaction for particular thing. Data have been standardized for in the study with Zero mean and Unit Standard Deviation.  Qualitative as well as quantitative techniques of data analysis were used to describe and analyze the research questions. The data collected from household survey were organized, coded and entered into statistical package, TANAGRA and Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS). Descriptive statistics such as, frequency distribution, percentages etc. multivariate analyses for data reduction, Principal Component Analysis, K-means Cluster Analysis, analyses related to Group Characterization have been done to arrive meaningful interpretations for conclusions of the study.

Results: The score obtained from the PCA are then grouped through cluster analysis. Social perception is to arrange the score according to deviations from Standard Deviation (SD). More than 76 percent of the total members fall in the group implying the perception of the members on social development by PACS is mostly homogeneous in nature. The researcher has find two variables namely, PACS role on empowering women in decision making and PACS Social business with other rural institutions comprise the first factor. Similarly second factor consist of the two (2) variables namely, PACS role in sensitizing women leadership in PACS management and role in skill development of women though training/ handholding etc. The second factor may be viewed as the factor of woman empowerment.

Conclusion: The study concludes that PACS play important role in social development of the family. Most of the members agreed upon the positive role of the PACS Empowering women in decision making, Generating awareness of ongoing social development schemes of Government, Mobilizing of weaker sections, Educating Co-operative principles and Social business with other rural institutions. Moreover, PACS help to improve education level and improve habit of agricultural loan at the time of cash requirement particularly during peak season of agricultural operations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Constraints Faced by the Farm Based Agri-Input Enterpreneurs in Central Telangana Region

B. Srishailam, B. Jirli, Keesam Manasa

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 118-125
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230810

In a situation when farmers’ suicide and distress sell still remain the key issues in India’s Agricultural scenario, we are dreaming of achieving a double income for the farming community. This gap in the income level of farmers can only be bridged by adopting newer income generating opportunities like establishing Farm based enterprises. Farm based enterprises are the vehicles for transforming rural India, these enterprises are maintained by the agripreneurs and this are the people enthusiastically more interestedly established units in agriculture especially in rural areas. Main aim of my research is to knowing about the constraints faced by the farm based agri input entrepreneurs and their impact on rural people especially on farmers of the area. The research investigation was conducted in Central Telangana region of Sanga Reddy district it consists of three revenue divisions namely Zahirabad, Narayanakhed and Sanga Reddy. From each revenue division Nine blocks were selected purposively using simple random sampling method thus making up a total of 26 blocks. From out of 26 Blocks each block 09 respondents interviewed and collected data with help of specially designed interview schedule it constitutes a total of 234 farm based agri-input entrepreneurs. The exploratory research design was used for the study. the objective to know the problems experienced by the Farm based Agripreneurs to start and run the farm-based enterprises. Constraints of agripreneurs stated that inadequate field diagnostic skills, lack of seed availability and storage facilities, high transportation costs, lack of financial facilities etc. are major Constraints faced by the farm based agri input entrepreneurs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factor Analysis Approach in Understanding Student’s Attitude towards Social Media Usage in Agricultural Higher Education

P. Divakar Reddy, Sweety Sharma, D. Thammi Raju

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 134-141
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230812

The social media concept has received much consideration from higher education since a period of ten years in India. The study was conducted for analysing the usage and effects of social media on agricultural students. The primary data was collected through questionnaire. Simple random sampling was employed, a sample of 126 students in which 100 PGDMA students from ICAR-NAARM and 26 B.Sc. Agricultural students from ANGRAU. The responses were analysed by using factor analysis and the most influenced responses were social media is a part of their everyday activity (0.88), their communication skills were improved because of social media (0.83), They felt that they were part of the social media community (0.87) and they derived satisfaction through networking and communication (0.84). These were the most affected statements from PGDMA students and B.Sc. Agricultural students. Conclusively, social media has enriched the acquaintance of individuals and build cognizance amongst students in all the aspects.

Open Access Original Research Article

The perception of Climatic Change on Climatic Resilience Crop Cultivars among Arable Farmers in Adamawa state, Nigeria

Martins Gaji Bunu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 142-152
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230813

The study examines the perception of climatic change and climatic resilience crop cultivars among arable farmers in Adamawa State. With the specific objectives as to determine the socio-economics of arable farmers, examine the perception of change in temperature by farmers farming experience, examine the perception of farmers on rainfall pattern change due to climatic change, identify the source of information about climatic resilience crop cultivars, identify the varieties of climatic resilience crops cultivated by arable farmers, examine the farmer’s perception on the effects of climatic change on arable crop production, determine the level of farmers adoption of climatic resilience crop cultivars and examine the socio-economic factors influencing the adoption of climatic resilience crop cultivar for effects of climatic change on arable production. Primary data was the main sources of data for the study collected through the use of well-structured schedule. Descriptive statistics (tables, frequency and percentage) and inferential statistics such as Chi-square, and Probit regression were used as analytical tools for the analysis of data. The study revealed that majority of the respondents are in their most active age (21-40years), hence their strength could be effectively utilized to increase agricultural production and majority of them were males with 49.0% were married. The study shows that the household size in the study area is relatively large and most (60.8%) of the respondents are educated (they can read and write) and this could be effectively utilized to boost arable production in the study area and 60.8% of the respondents were full-time farmers with a good farming experience which will help them to improve their production techniques and to increase their productivity. The study therefore, concluded that climatic change have significant effects on arable production which reduces potential yield and farmers were aware of the climatic resilience crop cultivars of which their sources of information on it were NGOs and other farm associate but their level of adoption is low and recommended that Farmer exposure to and knowledge of climate-resilient crop cultivars should be increased. This can be achieved through organizing more training on climate change adaptation and encouraging farmers to attend.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of an Index to Measure the Conservation Behaviour of Farmers

M. Asokhan, M. Ganapathy Ramu

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 153-160
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230814

Meeting the demand of rising population and sustaining the quality of the environment are the two major challenges of Indian agriculture system. The conservation practices have the potential to achieve food security while also have the capacity to retain the environmental sustainability. This article was focussed with the construction of an index to assess the adoption of conservation practices by farmers. Based on the review of literature and discussion with the expert's, indicators and sub-indicators were identified and enlisted. Relevancy test method was followed in the construction of an index. The list of sub-indicators was sent to 75 experts with the request, to critically evaluate each sub-indicator for its relevancy to be included in the Conservation Behaviour Index (CBI). Out of 75 experts, 30 experts responded in time and at the earliest. The criteria to be followed in this procedure was sub-indicators having relevancy percentage above 75, relevancy weightage above 0.75 and mean relevancy score above 2.25 was considered for inclusion in Conservation Behaviour Index. Based on the above three criteria 56 sub-indicators were retained. Further the index has been administered in the study area and the scores obtained were analysed using cumulative frequency method to classify farmers into three categories.

Open Access Original Research Article

Role of Microfinance in Functioning of Women Self-Help Groups (SHG) Under Bank Linkage Programme in the Rayalaseema Region of Andhra Pradesh

Dudekula Rafi, N. Venkatesa Palanichamy, D. Suresh Kumar, C. Velavan, V. Anandhi, D. Murugananthi

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 168-179
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230816

Aims: To understand the functioning of bank-linked women-based self-help groups in the Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh.

Study Design: Cross-sectional.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in two districts of the Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh. The survey was conducted from April to May 2021. The reference year for the present study regarding financial parameters and group-related information was taken 2020 – 2021.

Methodology: A total representative sample of 360 respondents with 120 SHG groups from two districts of the Rayalaseema region was taken for evaluation of the functioning of SHGs. All the respondents taken for the study were women. A well-structured interview schedule was used for collecting the primary data from the individuals.

Results: It is revealed from the study that, savings activity by SHG is a regular activity. Through SHG group involvement a considerable change is observed among women in terms of various skills i.e., decision making, entrepreneurial skills, competency, managing, credit handling, coordination, and planning.

Conclusion: It is concluded that using group meetings, member involvement, savings habit, external lending, and starting up of own enterprise a significant improvement of leadership qualities, managerial ability, psychological wellbeing, financial upliftment, and improved living standards are observed among all the rural women beneficiaries. validate reliability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Problems Faced by Vegetable Growers in District Budgam, J&K

Badar Iqbal, Mushtaq Ahmad, Raies A. Bhat, Tanveer Ahmad Ahngar, M. A. Beigh, S. A. Saraf, Showket Maqbool, Farida Akhter, Badrudurez ., Zahida Rashid, M. A. Wani, S. H. Khan, G. Gani, Naresh Kethavath, Majid Rashid

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 180-184
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230817

The purpose of this study was to determine the problems faced by the vegetable growers in District Budgam. Data was collected from 250 respondents of ten villages. A structured schedule listing almost all possible problems was framed to know the extent of problems they face. Ranking was done on the basis of maximum percentage. Majority of the growers about 96.8% reported non availability of labour at the time of harvesting, followed by 91.2% of the growers which reported that markets were distantly located and so on.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Analysis on Constraints Faced by Scheduled Tribes in Access to Social Institutions in Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu

Prasanth A., Balasubramaniam P.

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 185-192
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230818

The study was conducted to find out the constraints faced by scheduled tribes of Tamil Nadu in accessing the social institutions and availing their services. Ex post facto research design was used for this study. The study was conducted in Pethanaickenpalayam, Jawadhu hills and Kalrayan hills blocks of Salem, Tiruvannamalai and Viluppuram districts respectively. A list of constraints related to the social institutions has been prepared and survey was conducted among 270 tribal respondents in the study area. It has been found from the study that changing size of family into nuclear family, difficulty in adopting the spiritual needs, indebtedness of family hampers the schooling of children, poor awareness level of various developmental programs, and an increase in indebtedness among tribes were the major constraints concerning the family, religion, education, panchayat and economy respectively. Also suitable suggestions and strategies such as increase the number of schools and colleges near to the tribal villages, increase financial literacy among the tribes and create awareness among the tribes about various development programmes available to them were discussed to overcome the identified constraints in this paper.

Open Access Original Research Article

How Communication’s Channels Influence Diffusion of Eco-friendly Technologies? A Case Study of Sustainable Land Management Technologies’ Diffusion in Benin, West Africa

Claude-Gervais Assogba, Solange Hounzandji, Rigobert Tossou

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 193-203
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230819

This article analyses the influence of communication channels in Sustainable Land Management (SLM) measures diffusion in Kandi and Savalou in Benin, West Africa. Data were collected among a sample of 18 farmers organizations’ leaders and 301 producers applying implementing these technologies since two years at least. Descriptive statistics, Pearson Chi-2 and t student statistics were used via R.3.5.2 software to analyze data. Results show that formal and informal communication channels are used to disseminate SLM measures. The type of channel does not significantly influence the number of producers reached and those implementing SLM measures. Farmers organizations leaders play an important role in the process of SLM dissemination according to their status within organizations. Take into account both informal and formal communication channels and role played by opinion leaders can better contribute to increase awareness of land management technologies innovations introduced in rural areas and their diffusion at large scale.

Open Access Original Research Article

Agricultural Aspiration of Rural Youth

A. S. Gomase, V. S. Tekale

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 204-211
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230821

The present study was carried out on the aspirations of rural youth engaged in agriculture farming. The study was undertaken in six taluks of Yavatmal and Nagpur district of Vidarbha in Maharashtra state during 2020-21, to analyze the aspirations of rural youth towards agriculture. The data were collected from a sample selected by random sampling methods 150 rural youth from (Pusad, Umarkhed and Mahagaon taluks) Yavatmal district and other 150 rural youth from (Nagpur, Ramtek and Savner talukas) Nagpur district by using a pre-tested interview schedule. Standardized scales were used to the assessment of the aspirations of rural youth towards agriculture in the study. In this study, the majority (56.33%) of them aspired to take up improved agriculture occupation, 47.00 per cent of them aspired to take up dairy/poultry enterprise, 32.33 per cent of them aspired to the establishment of the poly house as protected cultivation, 47.00 per cent of them aspired to avail a sprinkler/ drip irrigation facility, 43.67 per cent of them aspired to enhance their land holdings by 2-4 acres, enhance their income by 50-75 per cent (42.33%), 37.33 per cent of them aspired to enhance their credit access by up to 33.00 per cent, 52.33 per cent of them aspired to acquire additional knowledge on crop production aspect, 41.00 per cent aspired to provide education to their children up to primary/middle school level education at the village level, and 56.33 per cent aspired to use KVKs /Agriculture Department/Agriculture University for having sources of information regarding market information/intelligence. The overall result was that more than half (58.66%) of the rural youth were involved in agriculture had a medium level of aspirations followed by a equal percentage of rural youth (20.67%) in each low and high levels of aspirations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Social and Political Drivers Affecting Wheat Production in Nigeria

S. A. Dambazau, Jayasree Krishnankutty, T. K. Ajitha

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 212-223
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230824

Social and political factors are believed to be affecting agricultural operations in a way that stagnates their growth or leads to the total collapse of the system. A study on social and political factors affecting wheat crop production in Nigeria was conducted with the aim of exploring those factors for proper solutions. Primary data was collected through national stakeholders’ focus group discussion while time series data of the country's wheat production, harvested area, and imports was collected. MAXQDA statistical software was used to analyze the focus group discussion report, while compound growth rate analysis was used to compare the growth rate of the variables under study. The results indicated the extent to which political factors affect wheat production in Nigeria more than others. The degree to which external social factors affect the sector was less when compared with political factors and more than internal social factors. Non-adoption of recommended agronomic practices and the knowledge level of the farmers were the major internal social factors. While the major external social factors were consumer food habits, consumer demand for convenience, low produce prices, and high input costs. Political factors identified were social security issues, inconsistent government policies, and intricacies in implementation, the role of the publication media, role playing by the milling industries, international trade interests, and lack of political will. The result also indicated that the total average growth rate of production was negative, and positive growth was recorded in the harvested area, with a high percentage recorded in imports. For Nigeria to achieve the desired outcome, focused commitments and the adoption of a multi-dimensional approach are required.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-Economic Factors Affecting the Perception of Farmers towards Soil Health Card (SHC) Scheme in Rayalaseema Region of Andhra Pradesh

S. Lokesh Babu, T. Lakshmi, S. V. Prasad, S. Hemalatha, B. Ravindra Reddy

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 224-229
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230825

Soil is an important component of farming since it delivers nutrients to the plants. Soil health is critical for ensuring long-term agricultural production. “National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) was implemented during 12th Plan with the objective of making agriculture more productive, sustainable and climate resilient. Conserving natural resources, to adopt comprehensive soil health management practices and optimize utilization of water resources are also objectives of NMSA. As a part of comprehensive soil health management Soil Health Card (SHC) scheme was started by the Department of Agriculture & Co-operation under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare. Soil test-based nutrient management has emerged as a key issue in efforts to increase agricultural productivity and production, because optimal nutrient use, based on soil analysis, can improve crop productivity and minimize wastage of these nutrients, minimizing environmental impact and leading to bias through optimal production. Governments do efforts towards these through Soil Health Cards. The present study was conducted in Anantapuramu district of Andhra Pradesh in view of assessing the socio economic factors influencing the perception level of the farmers on Soil Health Card scheme. Results revealed that there was a positive and significant relationship of perception towards SHC scheme with respect to education, land holding, mass media exposure, social participation, extension contact, scientific orientation, economic motivation, risk orientation, innovativeness, management orientation and achievement motivation at 0.01%level of significance, where as cropping intensity at 0.05 %level of significance. Farming experience and family type had a negative and non-significant association with farmers' perceptions of the SHC scheme, whereas age and yearly income had a positive and non-significant relationship with farmers' perceptions of the system.

Open Access Review Article

Crop Residue Based Complete Feed for Enhancing Livestock Performance- A Review

P. V. Patil, M. K. Gendley, M. K. Patil, Sonali Prusty, R. C. Ramteke

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 26-32
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230799

The estimated projected data regarding demand and supply of feed and fodder shows13.20% and 18.43% deficit between demand and supply of dry and green fodder to livestock, respectively. Shortage of land for cultivation of fodders and increased human as well as livestock population has led to heavy competition for food grains that necessitates using the crop residues for the feeding of livestock. These crop residues are rich in fibre and low in other nutrients; they also have low palatability and digestibility. The best way to efficiently utilize the crop residues is to prepare complete feeds from pretreated crop residues + concentrates mixture. Pretreatment of crop residues increases digestibility by increasing rate of delignification, increasing enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose, hemicelluloses and thus increasing the glucose yield.  The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients to provide the specific nutrient requirement for various physiological functions of livestock. Crop residue-based complete feed could be prepared in mash, block and pellet (Expander and extruder) form. In this system, all feed ingredients including roughages are proportioned, processed and mixed into a uniform blend. Different researchers undertook feeding trials of complete animal feed and conventional animal feed and reported better performance in terms of weight gain, milk yield and reproductive performance on feeding complete feed pellets or complete feed blocks to ruminants as compared to conventional ration. In conclusion, crop residue based complete feed could improve ruminant performance and reduces cost of feeding per kg gain or yield and thereby improving livestock based rural economy in developing countries like India.

Open Access Review Article

Wood-Based Industries of Jammu and Kashmir: A Review

Tahir Mushtaq, S. A. Gangoo, P. A. Sofi, Peerzada Ishtiyak Ahmad, Abdul Rashid Malik, Amarjeet Singh

Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, Page 126-133
DOI: 10.9734/ajaees/2021/v39i1230811

Wood-based industries fall under secondary economic activity. The industrial process involves changing the form of goods to enhance their value. To undertake the manufacturing of goods, inputs in the form of capital, labor, power, and raw materials are required. The output is a finished product that can either be used again as a raw material for another manufactured or consumed in its present form. The location of an industry, thus, largely depends on the avail­ability of raw materials, power, capital, labor, infrastructure, and managerial skill. The establishment of the wood industry is also influenced by the gen­eral climatic conditions, weather, industrial inertia, historical accident, and government policy. The Kashmiris have an age-old tradition in the manufacturing of, paper machines, willow-wicker, cricket bat and toys making are some of the important industries which pro­vide full or part-time employment to the people.