Development of Improved Groundnut Varieties for Dietary Upliftment among Households in Homa Bay County, Kenya

Winnie Ogutu Okelloh *

Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Management, Egerton University, P.O. Box-536-20115, Egerton Njoro, Kenya.

Hillary Kiplang’at Bett

Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness Management, Egerton University, P.O. Box-536-20115, Egerton Njoro, Kenya.

Kenneth Waluse Sibiko

Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Maseno University, P.O. Box 3275-40100, Kisumu, Kenya.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Low dietary diversity is one of the major causes of malnutrition in Kenya. As a result, the government of Kenya and its partners have promoted the uptake of plant based legumes such as Improved Groundnut Varieties to offer solution to the rising cases of poor nutrition. Understanding the impact of Improved Groundnut Varieties on dietary diversity is critical but evidence shows that it’s not yet explored. This study sought to estimate the impact of Improved Groundnut Varieties (IGVs) on dietary diversity among smallholder farmers in Homa Bay County, Kenya. The study used multi-stage sampling procedure where the sub-counties and wards were purposively selected. The villages and respondents were selected using simple random sampling.  Cross-sectional data was collected through interview schedules on a random sampling of 384 households. Both descriptive statistics and econometric methods, Propensity Score Matching method were used. The results pointed out that Improved Groundnut Varieties had a positive and significant impact on the diets of the farmers. Households cultivating IGVs had better dietary diversity non-adopters. Overally, this study recommends sensitization of farmers to adopt IGVs and the need for the government to facilitate extension service provision, trainings and access to credit to increase yields and incomes. Again, the study recommends formation of farmers groups that are business hubs as opposed to social welfare to enhance bargaining power and access to inputs and outputs market. Additionally, there is need for intersectoral collaboration between agriculture and health sector to sensitize farmers on the importance of diversifying diets and consuming the crops grown in the farms.

Keywords: Improved groundnut varieties, dietary diversity, propensity score matching

How to Cite

Okelloh, W. O., Bett, H. K., & Sibiko, K. W. (2022). Development of Improved Groundnut Varieties for Dietary Upliftment among Households in Homa Bay County, Kenya. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, 40(11), 320–333.


Development Initiatives. 2018 Global Nutrition report: Shining a light to spur action on nutrition. Bristol, UK; 2018.


Accessed on 2nd July, 2019.

Kimiywe J. Food and nutrition security: Challenges of post-harvest handling in Kenya. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 2015;74(4):487–495. Available:

Government of Kenya. Household baseline survey report-Homabay County. 2014;1.

Government of Kenya. First County Integrated Development Plan 2013-2017. Homa Bay County; 2013.


Kenya national bureau of statistics. Homa Bay County multiple indicator cluster survey 2011. Final Report. Nairobi, Kenya; 2013.

Food and Agriculture Organization. Future smart food. Rediscovering hidden treasures of neglected and underutilised species for Zero in Asia; 2018.

Accessed on 21st August, 2019.

Jager I. De, Abizari A, Douma JC, Giller KE, Brouwer ID. (2017). Grain legume cultivation and children’s dietary diversity in smallholder farming households in rural Ghana and Kenya. Food Security. 9:1053–8. Ajeigbe HA, Waliyar F, Echekwu CA, Ayuba K, Motagi BN, Eniayeju D, Inuwa A. A 9. Farmer’s guide to groundnut production in Nigeria. Patancheru. Telangana, India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. 2014;502-324:36.

Alagirisamy M. Groundnut. In Breeding Oilseed Crops for Sustainable Production. Academic Press; 2016.

Government of Kenya. Agriculture and food authority. Nuts and Oil Cops Statistics; 2016.

Government of the Republic of Kenya.

Boaz N, Wachira P, Kagot V, Okoth S. Susceptibility of locally cultivated groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) varieties to aflatoxin accumulation in Homa Bay County, Kenya. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2017;11(33):1329-1337.

Mutegi CK, Hendriks SL, Jones RB. Factors associated with the incidence of Aspergillus section flavi and afflatoxin contamination of peanuts in the Busia and Homa Bay districts of Western Kenya. Plant Pathology. 2012;61(6):1143-1153.

Ahmed MH, Mesfin HM, Abady S, Mesfin W, Kebede A. Adoption of improved groundnut seed and its impact on rural households’ welfare in Eastern Ethiopia. Cogent Economics & Finance. 2016;4(1): 1268747.

Simtowe F, Kassie M, Asfaw S, Shiferaw B, Monyo E, Siambi M. Welfare effects of agricultural technology adoption: The case of improved groundnut varieties in rural Malawi. Selected paper presented at the International Association of Agricultural Economists (IAAE) Triennial Conference 18–24 August, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil; 2012.

Murray AG, Mills BF, Kostandini G. Do improved groundnut seeds make African farmers more food secure?. Evidence from Uganda. Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 2016;48(3):219–240.

Manda J, Khonje MG, Alene AD, Gondwe T. Welfare impacts of improved groundnut varieties in eastern Zambia: A heterogeneous treatment effects approach. Agrekon. 2017;56(4):313–329.

Turner R, Hawkes C, Waage J, Ferguson E, Haseen F, Homans H, Shankar B. Agriculture for improved nutrition: The Current Research Landscape. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 2013;34(4):369-377.

Smale M, Moursi M, Birol E. How does adopting hybrid maize affect dietary diversity on family farms?. Micro-evidence from Zambia. Food Policy. 2015;52:44-53.

Herforth A, Ballard TJ. Nutrition indicators in agriculture projects: Current measurement, priorities, and gaps. Global Food Security; 2016.


Ruel MT. Is dietary diversity an indicator of food security or dietary quality? A review of measurement issues and research needs. Food Consumption and Nutrition Division; 2013.

Food and Agriculture. Guidelines for measuring household and individual dietary diversity. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; 2011.

Habte TY, Krawinkel M. Dietary diversity score: A measure of nutritional adequacy or an indicator of healthy diet. J Nutr Health Sci. 2016;3(3):303.

Greene WH. Econometric Analysis. 8th Edition. Harlow, England: Pearson Education Limited; 2018.

Theriault V, Smale M, Haider H. How does gender affect the sustainable intensification of cereal production in the West African Sahel? Evidence from Burkina Faso. World Development, 2017;92:177-191.

Danso-Abbeam G, Bosiako J, Ehiakpo DS, Mabe FN. Adoption of improved maize variety among farm households in the northern region of Ghana. Cogent Economics & Finance. 2017;5: 1416896.

Mmbando F, Baiyegunhi L. Socio-economic and institutional factors influencing the adoption of improved maize varieties in Hai District, Tanzania. Journal of Human Ecology. 2016;53(1):49-56.

Rosenbaum PR, Rubin DB. The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects. Biometrika. 1983;70(1):41-55.