This study analysed relationship between agricultural risk management strategies and production efficiency among peasant farmers in Benue State, Nigeria. Data for the study were collected from randomly sampled 130 peasant farmers in Benue State using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used to analyse data collected. The study showed that majority of the respondents (45.54%) operated within a technical efficiency range of 0.50 and less than 0.90. Majority of the respondents (35.27%) operated within an allocative efficiency range of 0.0001 and less than 0.001. Majority of the respondents (37.50%) operated within an economic efficiency range of 0.0001 and less than 0.001. Technical efficiency among the respondents varied substantially ranging between 0.292 and 1.00, with a mean technical efficiency of 0.778. Allocative efficiency among the respondents varied widely ranging between 0.0001 and 0.869, with a mean allocative efficiency of 0.148. Economic efficiency among the respondents varied substantially ranging between 0.0001 and 0.869, with a mean economic efficiency of 0.127. There was a significant positive correlation between respondents’ predicted efficiencies and agricultural risk management strategies adopted by the respondents. Policy should be conscious of the need to ensure the combination of job creation and improvement of overall economic efficiency of the peasant farmers in order to enhance their productivity and income generation. There is the need to offer farmers more extension services in their critical areas of needs. This will help the farmers adopt risk mitigating measures that would further reduce or out rightly avert the negative effects of agricultural risks, thereby increasing their agricultural productivity and income. In addition, more rural farmers should be encouraged to join cooperative associations as this can increase their chances of mitigating the negative effects of agricultural risks due to the comparative advantages associated with membership of co-operative societies.
This paper aims to investigate the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions through pollution-haven hypothesis model for original ASEAN5 (Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and Philippines) countries by using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach also known as Bound test. Annual time series data is employed for the period spanning from 1970-2008 comprising 39 years of observation. The ARDL technique has the advantage of not requiring a specific identification of the order of the underlying data besides this technique is suitable for small or finite sample size. The results of ECM-ARDL for short run analysis are indicated that in the Philippines case, most of the coefficients in the short run are significant except for gross national income per capita (GNI). In the short run, GNI has showed positively relationship with the CO2 while the manufacturing value added (MV) has negative relationship with the CO2. Other countries in this study; Thailand and Indonesia show a mix evidence of relationship between their independent variables and the dependent variable. Moreover, the results of the long run elasticities show that for GNI, MV, and FDI have significantly and positively influenced the level of CO2 in Indonesia and Thailand. As compared to Philippines, only FDI inflow is positively influence the level of CO2 in this country. ASEAN5 countries should carefully monitor the level of CO2 in the nation as they received more FDI inflow in the countries.
In Nigeria, fish farming has emerged as a fast growing sector and a viable alternative to declining capture fisheries. The paper attempts to evaluate and compare the profitability and technical efficiency of different rearing techniques among fish growers in Lagos State, Nigeria using budgetary technique and Stochastic Frontier production model. Concrete tanks system is the dominant form for rearing fish, occupying 58.3% of the total tank and pond area. All the rearing techniques show some level of appreciable profit with concrete tanks delivering the highest net profit. The benefit: cost ratios for different techniques varied between 0.82 in earthen pond to 5.20 in concrete tank. The mean technical efficiencies are 0.84, 0.86, 0.95 and 1.0 in plastic tank, concrete tank, earthen pond and fibre tank respectively. Adhering strictly to the recommended fish management practices were found to be critical for improved fish farming in the country. Efforts should be directed in reducing cost of feed by removing tariffs on imported feed or production of locally fish meal which formed the main cost component of fish feed. This study also compares the technical efficiency of four different rearing techniques. The results of analysis indicate variation in the distribution patterns of technical efficiency estimates from the four techniques. The mean levels of technical efficiency are 86%, 95%, 84% and 100% for concrete tanks, earthen pond, plastic and fibre tanks respectively.
Cassava is an important staple food for human and animal feeding in Cuba. Despite its importance, there is little or nonexistent information to diagnose preferences and frequency of consumption of cassava in that country. In this sense, the present article characterizes the preferences and frequency of consumption of cassava in the municipalities of Plaza de la Revolución-La Habana province, El Salvador–Guantanamo province and San José de Las Lajas–Mayabeque province in Cuba. A survey was conducted through a questionnaire containing twelve closed and two open questions. The sample was determined based on the number of total population of each municipality considering 95% as confidence interval and 5% as error margin. The results were statistically analyzed by calculating the absolute and the relative frequencies of each question. It was observed that the acquisition of cassava in the municipalities of Plaza de la Revolución, El Salvador and San José de las Lajas in Cuba is done by purchase small quantities of fresh cassava for home consumption within one week, due to the extreme perishability of cassava, which limits consumers' ability to store fresh roots at home. The choice of cassava is made based on both skin colour (light brown) and pulp (white) and empirical knowledge about its ease of cooking, and that cassava is mostly consumed in boiled and fried forms up to four times a week in times where there is root market supply with the desirable culinary characteristics (cooking facility), that is, from September to December.
This study analysed marketing information usage among rice producers in Benue State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 130 randomly sampled rice producers in Benue State using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used to analyse data collected. The study showed that 53.85% of the respondents had access to marketing information. Other rice producers (53.85%) were the most readily available sources of agricultural marketing information among the respondents. The study showed that 65.38% of the respondents did not utilize marketing information. Furthermore, the study found that 66.92% of the respondents were not members of cooperative society. The level of marketing information utilization (from the listed information sources) among the respondents was generally low (73.33%) to medium (86.67%). The result of the binary logistic regression showed that at 5% level of significance, age, sales, other rice producers, education, off-farm employment and farm size had significant influence on farmers’ utilization of marketing information in the study area. The study showed that the most limiting constraint to accessing marketing information among the respondents was high cost of accessing information (74.62%). It is recommended that extension agency should encourage rice farmers to subscribe to the various rice farmers groups that abound in the state. This will make information easily accessible to them and enhance information utilization among the farmers. Extension agents should intensify their efforts so as to spend much time to teach farmers on the areas of needs. Mass Media extension teaching method should be used regularly to disseminate marketing information to rice farmers in such a manner that the farmers will understand the message. Furthermore, the formal information sources (print and electronic media) should double efforts to carry out their function of information generation and delivery to farmers.
This paper examines the validity of purchasing power parity (PPP) hypothesis for four founding members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN4) with Singapore as base currency. A range of standard unit root tests and cointegration used in previous studies was applied to test long run PPP and four models were introduced based on the implementation of Common Effective Preferential Trade (CEPT) scheme and the impact of global financial crisis. The result from the unit root test has shown that all the data are stationary at I (1). There was no evidence of PPP detected between ASEAN4 and Singapore before the implementation of CEPT scheme using Johansen cointegration test in model 1.However, the evidence of long-run PPP were detected between Malaysia-Singapore, Thailand-Singapore and Philippines-Singapore after the implementation of CEPT scheme for model 2 and before the global financial crisis hits in U.S economy. Among these three countries, the strongest presence of PPP is found between Malaysia and Singapore where it carried both correctly signed and statistically significant variables. The strong evidence of PPP at this period has suggested that the Malaysia’s economy remains strong enough to cushion the effect of this recession due to its diversification economic policy.
Aims: The creation of an agricultural extension system and its evolution over time is affected by many factors such as history of the country, cultural and community mandates, farming systems, and public policy. There are notable differences in the agricultural extension systems operating around the globe. The purpose of this paper was to review the agricultural extension systems in Nepal, India, and the United States Methodology: A comprehensive review of literature was conducted to identify the similarities and differences in the agricultural extension systems in the stated countries. Relevant documents used included creation legislation for each country, global analysis from organizations such as Food and Agricultural Organization, and peer-reviewed journal articles. The authors’ extension experiences working in the stated countries also provided inputs to develop this paper. Results: Differences were observed in the area of extension models, program delivery, outcomes assessment, and research–extension interface among agricultural extension systems compared in this study. The program delivery mechanism of Nepal and India was mainly driven by ‘top down expert model’. Contrary to this, in the United States, extension was operating under a learning model. In all three countries many small scale-farmers felt underserved and disengaged from their extension services. It was found that only small segments of the extension audience were served in comparison to the large number of farmers and their families residing in these countries. In Nepal and India, it was perceived that extension agents lacked professional commitment to serve farmers and were mostly accountable to their managers. Conclusion: Needs were found not–aligned to the extension services offered by all, suggesting a lack of appropriate extension leadership. All the systems need to ensure they are meeting both the perception and realities of their clients. Clients and taxpayers need to feel there is a public value for the extension systems.